Progress and issues in e-beam and other top down nanolithography
Nezih Unal, Diana Mahlu, Olga Raslin, Daniel Ritter, Christoph Sambale, Ulrich Hofmann
International Conference on Micro and Nono Engineering (MNE) 2009
In this 60th anniversary year of the American Vacuum Society (AVS), this paper is one in a series of topical reviews of science and technology represented by the various AVS Divisions. The focus of the paper is on trends, frontier advancement, and issues remaining in nanolithography. The manuscript highlights, in particular, the progress made in electron beam lithography system development, advancement in materials and methods used to pattern down to a few nanometers, and the prospects for multiple beam systems as high throughput alternatives. Also discussed are the underlying rationales for observed trends in lithography tool development. Invariably the discussion about emerging lithography solutions bifurcates depending on whether one is examining the roadmap for the silicon integrated circuit industry or everything else. The emphasis here is mostly on everything else but also explores the boundary.
The author wishes to thank colleagues who generously offered images and descriptions of their research accomplishments for inclusion in this manuscript. And he specially thanks his colleagues at the Cornell NanoScale Science and Technology Facility, Rob Ilic, for performing the SCELETON and BEAMER simulations featured in Table I, and Daron Westly for the HSQ image used in Fig. 2. This work was performed in part at the Cornell Nanoscale Facility, a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, supported by the National Science Foundation Grant ECCS-0335765.
II. LIMITING FACTORS IN NANOLITHOGRAPHY
III. PROGRESS IN NANOLITHOGRAPHY
IV. LITHOGRAPHY THAT SEEKS ATOMIC PRECISION
V. NANOIMPRINT LITHOGRAPHY
VI. NANOLITHOGRAPHY TOOLS: ELECTRON BEAMLITHOGRAPHY SYSTEMS
VII. MULTIBEAMS—A WAY TO LEVERAGE ELECTRON BEAMLITHOGRAPHY